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生醫研究之統計方法

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統計方法與生物醫學研究

 

中興大學 生物系統工程研究室 陳加忠

 
 

統計學此學門的內容與其重要性已經不用再多介紹。只要量測的對象本身有差異存在,即是需要統計學。對生物學門中的三大部門:生物學,農學,醫學,統計學的重要性由其普遍性即可瞭解。在生物學門三領域中每一學生都是必修統計學。

工程部門與統計學的相關性最初只是出現於工程數學中機率章節。近年來,統計技術也普遍應用於工程科系各領域。例如電機領域中隨機訊號之處理、土木領域中混凝土材料強度之比對,化工領域中製程之控制,機械領域中成品的品質管制。工程界耳熟能詳的六倍標準差也是統計之典型應用。

1990年代之後隨著個人電腦的普及,功能不斷地進步。以往要藉由大型電腦才能運算的統計題目可以輕而易舉的在桌上型電腦完成。統計軟體也隨之日益普及化。配合視窗式介面,以滑鼠點取即可執行各種統計運算。但也因是如此,造成研究人不重視統計原理,不習慣自基礎學門開始研習,認為只要統計軟體在手,一切統計問題依賴滑鼠即可解決。此種對於統計學的誤解,對於統計技術的濫用與誤用,學術界以"Abuse and Misuse of Statistics"加以表示。

20045月,西班牙Girona University,兩名教授Emili Garcia BerthouCarles AlcarazBMC Medical Research Methodology發表一篇驚人的報告。2001年的Nature刊物中181篇研究論文,至少有69篇被發現其統計技術至少有一個錯誤。自2004年至2008年,許多醫學期刊開始評論期刊內容內常見的統計錯誤。國內許多學術刊物,依我個人的檢視,論文統計錯誤之比例更有80以上。

在工程領域中,農業工程,食品工程與生醫工程是介於生物與工程之間的學術領域。對這些工程學系而言,統計技術的正確應用更為重要。生物系統工程研究室為此而開授一系列的課程。大學部學生要求修習統計學,研究所則研習兩門課:回歸分析,生物與化學計量學。目的即是要求學生具有統計學之基礎。在應用方面,在國外許多醫學期刊已有許多評論性文章(Reviews)用以討論統計應用常見的錯誤。在生物學門的三大領域中,醫學領域對於統計學要求最為嚴謹,因此更是值得學習。

此網站建立"生物醫學研究之統計方法"此專欄。此專欄之目的不是教授統計原理,而是用以提供研究人員相關資訊:如何避免誤用統計。將以一系列文章介紹此主題,重點以生醫領域為主軸。以下為近十年來相關之論文獻索引。

作者(Authors)

年代(year)

篇名 (Title)

期刊名稱 (Journal)

() Vol:

頁數 (Page)

James E.De Muth

2009

Overview of biostatistics used in clinical research

Am J Health-Syst Pharm

66

70-81

S. R. Lowy3

2009

Use and Misuse of Multilple Comparisons in Animal Experiments1,2

J. Anim. Sci. 1992

70

1971-1977

Eunsik ParkPh.D.1 et al.

2009

Correct Use of Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance

Korean J Lab Med

29

1-9

Nancy R

2009

Use and Misuse of the Receiver Operating  Characteristic Curve in Risk Prediction

Circulation .2007

115

928-935

Eugene H. Blackstone,MD

2009

Breaking down barriers:Helpful breakthrough statistical methods you need to understand better

The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery

122

430-439

Ng K H.

2009

Effective Medical Weiting(Presenting the statictical results)

Singapore Med J

50(1)

11-14

Sylvan Wallenstein et al.

2009

Some Statistical Methods Useful in Circulation Research

Circulation Research

47(1)

1-9

 

Sharon-LiseT.Normand,Ph.D.

2008

Some Ood and Some New Statistical Tools for Outcomes Research

Published in final edited from as: Circulation.

118(8)

872-884

Emmanuel Lesaffre,Dr.Sc.

2008

Use and Misuse of the P-Value

Bulletin of the NYU Hospital for Joint Diseases

66(2)

146-9

Um Okeh

2008

Statistical problems in medical research

African Journal of Biotechbology

7(25)

4819-4826

David Bartley. et al.

2008

Measurement Uncertainty

Ann. Occup. Hyg.

52(6)

413-417

Carlo Basile. et al.

2008

Total body water in health and disease:Have anthropometric equations any meaning?

Nephrol Dial Transplant

23

1997-2002

Helen Blair Simpsina,b,*. et al.

2008

Statistical choices can effect inferences about treatment efficacy: A case study from obsessive-compulsive disorder research  

Journal of Psychiatric Research

42

631-638

Nathan Tabacka,b,*. et al.

2008

A survey of abstracts of high-impact clinical journals indicated  most statistical methods presented are summary statistics

Journal of Clinical Epidemiology

61

277-281

John Ludbrook

2008

Analysis of 2 × 2 tables of frequencies:matching test to experimental design

International Journal of Epidemiology

37

1430-1435

Gervasio Pineiroa,*. et al.

2008

How to evaluate models:Observed vs. predicted or predicted vs. observed?

Ecological Modelling

216

316-322

Stephen J Gilmore

2008

Evaluating statistics in clinical trials:Making the unintelligible intelligible

Australasian Journal of Dermatology

49

177-186

Brian Whittle. et al.

2008

Magazine on Production Processing Marketing

World Poultry

24

1-34

J.Michael Oakes

2008

Statisuscal Power and Sample Size:Some Fundamentals for Clinician Researchers

S.P.Glasser(ed.),Essentials of Clinical Research

15

261-278

Don Byod. et al.

2008

Overview of Measuring Effest Size:The Effect of Measurement Error

National Center for Analysis of Longitudinal Data in Education Research

 

1-7

Peh W C G .

2008

Effective Medical Weiting(Why Write?)

Singapore Med J

49(6)

443-444

Peh W C G .

2008

Effective Medical Weiting(Weiting the Introduction)

Singapore Med J

49(10)

756-758

Peh W C G .

2008

Effective Medical Weiting(Basic structure and types of scientific papers)

Singapore Med J

49(7)

522-525

Ng K H.

2008

Effective Medical Weiting(Weiting the results)

Singapore Med J

49(12)

967-969

 

Tom Lang,MA

2007

Documenting Research in Scientific Articles: Guidelines for Authors*

CHEST

131

317-319

Barry K. Moser

2007

Statistics for Clinicians

Clinical Advances in HematologyOncology

5(4)

251-253

Shinichi Nakagawa. et al.

2007

Effect size,confidence interval and statistical significance: a practical guide for biologists

Biol. Rev

82

591-605

L.A. Hothorn

2007

How to deal with multiple treatment or dose groups in randomized clinical trials?

2007 The Author Journal compilation 2007 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.Fundamental Clinical Pharmacology

21

137-154

Todd Neideen,MD. et al.

2007

Understanding Statistical Tests

Journal of Surgical Education

64

93-96

D.Betsy Mccoach. et al.

2007

Errors of Inference in Sructural Equation Modeling

Psychology in the School.

44(5)

461-470

Norman A Desbiens*

2007

The reporting of statistics in medical educational studies: an observational study

BMC Medical Research Methodology

7(35)

1-3

David Berle. et al.

2007

Inconsistencies between reported test statistics and p-values un two psychiatry journals

International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Rresearch Int. J. Methods Psychiatr.Res.

16(4)

202-207

 

Douglas A.Fitts*

2006

Misuse of ANOVA with cumulative intakes

Appetite

46

100-102

Yu-Kang Tu. et al.

2006

Misuses of correlation and regression analyses in orthodontic research : The problem of mathematical coupling

American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics

130

62-68

Gregory T.Sica. et al.

2006

Bias in Research Studies

Radiology

238

780-789

Dr P.F Kotur

2006

Statistics in Blomedical Journals

Indian J.Anaesth

50(3)

166-168

A.Gustavo Gonzalez. et al.

2006

The correlation coefficient attacks again

Accred Qual Assur

11

256-258

Peyman Jafari. et al.

2006

An assessment of recently published gene expression data analyses : reporting experimental design and statistical factors

BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Marking

6(27)

1-8

Tom Lang,MA

2006

Documenting Research in Scientific Articles : Guidelines for Authors*t

Chest

130

1263-1268

Karl De Vore*

2006

Have more confidence in your stability data : Two points to consider

Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis

41

293-298

J.M.Sonnergaard*

2006

On the misinterpretation of the correlation coefficient in pharmaceutical sciences

International Journal of Pharmaceutics

321

12-17

T.Singtoroja. et al.

2006

A new approach to evaluate regression model during validation of bioanalytical aeeays

Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis

41

219-227

A.Petrie

2006

Statistics in orthopaedic papers

The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery

88

1121-1136

Tom Lang,MA

2006

Common Statistical Errors Even You Can Find(Part : 7 Common Errors in Conclusions )

AMWA JOURNAL

21(1)

17-18

 

 

 

 

 

 

Philip Schatz*. et al.

2005

Misuse of statistical tests in Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology publications

Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology

20

1053-1059

Julia Volaufova

2005

Statistics Methods in Biomedical Research and Measurement Science

Measurement Science Review

5(1)

1-10

Dana Oliver. et al.

2005

Reading a Research Article Part : Types pf Variables

Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing

9(1)

110-112

Dana Oliver. et al.

2005

Reading a Research Article Part : Parametric and Nonparametric Statistics

Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing

9(2)

238-240

Dana Oliver. et al.

2005

Reading a Research Article Part : The Data Collection Instrument

Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing

10(3)

423-426

Peter G.Fedor-Freybergh. et al.

2005

From the descriptive towards inferential statistics : Hundred years since conception of the Student's t-distribution

Neuroendocrinol Lett

26(3)

167-172

Moon-Jae K.im et al.

2005

Development of Anthropometry-Based Equations for the Estimation of the Total Body Water in Koreans

J Korean Med Sci

20

445-449

David A. Ludwig

2005

Use and Misuse of p-Values in Designed and Observational Studies : Guide for Researchers and Reviewers

Auiation,Space,and EnuironmentalMedicine

76(7)

675-680

K.Gregory. et al.

2005

A standard approach to measurement uncertainties for scientists and engineers in medicine*

Australasian Physical Engineering Sciences in Medicine

28

131-139

F.R.Harker. et al.

2005

The use and misuse of discrimination tests for assessing the sensory properties of fruit and vegetables

Postharvest Biology and Technology

38

195-201

Andrew J. Vickers. et al.

2005

Analysis of Variance is Easily Misapplied in the Analysis of Randomizesd Trials : A Critique and Discussion of Alternative Statistical Approaches

Psychosomatic Medicine

67

652-655

Tom Lang,MA

2005

Common Statistical Errors Even You Can Find(Part : 6 Errors in Research Designs )

AMWA JOURNAL

20(3)

112-115

Tom Lang,MA

2005

Common Statistical Errors Even You Can Find(Part : 5 Errors in Reports of Diagnostic Tests )

AMWA JOURNAL

20(2)

50-51

Tom Lang,MA

2005

Common Statistical Errors Even You Can Find(Part : 4 Errors in Correlation and Regression Analyses)

AMWA JOURNAL

20(1)

10-11

 

 

 

 

 

 

Alan S Rigby. et al.

2004

A survey of statistics in three UK general practice journal

BMC Medical Research Methodology

4(28)

1-7

Kenneth J.Ottenbachera,*. et al.

2004

A review of two journals found that articles using multivariable logistic regression frequently did not report commonly recommended assumptions

Journal of Clinical Epidemiology

57

1147-1152

T.kutia. et al.

2004

Analysis of sensory data of different food products by ANOVA

Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems

72

253-257

Taesung Park. et al.

2004

Model Diagnostic Plots for Repeated Measures Data

Biometrical Journal

4

441-452

L.R.Schaeffer*

2004

Application of random regression models in  animal breeding

Livestock Production Sciences

86

35-45

B.Ballaa. et al.

2004

Comparative study of cardiovascular markers data by various techniques of multivariate analysis

Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems

72

259-267

Kinga Komka. et al.

2004

A modified error model for the assessment of stability of pharmaceutical products

Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems

72

161-165

M.J.R.Healy*

2004

What statistics does a paediatrician need to know?

Current Paediatrics

14

507-512

Elizabeth M.Glaister. et al.

2004

Line-Fitting with Outliers

Teaching Staitstics

26(3)

78-80

Tom Lang,MA

2004

Common Statistical Errors Even You Can Find(Part : 3 Errors in Data Displays)

AMWA JOURNAL

19(2)

9-11

 

 

 

 

 

 

E.Nigel Linga,*

2003

Statistical power in comparative aquaculture studies

Aquaculture

224

159-168

Graham R. et al.

2003

Misrepresenting random sampling?A systematic review of research parpers in the Journal of Advanced Nursing

2003 Blackwell Publishing Ltd,Journal of Advanced Nursing

44(3)

278-288

James F.Reed. et al.

2003

Methodological and Statistical Techniques:What Do Residents Really Need to Know About Statistics?

Journal of Medical Systems

27(3)

233-238

J.Lorenzo Bermejo. et al.

2003

Random regression to model genetically the longitudinal data of daily feed intake in growing pigs

Livestock Production Science

82

189-199

M.E.Shy,MD. et al.

2003

Quantitative sensory testing(Report of the Therapeutics and Technology Assessment Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology)

Neurology

60

898-904

Y H Chan

2003

Biostatistics 102:Quantitative Data-ParametricNon-Parametric Tests

Singapore Med J

44(8)

391-396

Tom Lang,MA

2003

Common Statistical Errors Even You Can Find(Part : 2 Errors in Multivariate Analyses and in Interpreting Differences Between Groups)

AMWA JOURNAL

18(3)

103-107

Tom Lang,MA

2003

Common Statistical Errors Even You Can Find(Part : 1 Errors in Descriptive Statistics and in Interpreting Probability Values)

AMWA JOURNAL

18(2)

67-71

 

Bahman P.Tabaei,MPH. et al.

2002

A Multivariate Logistic Regression Equation to Ssreen for Diabetes

Diabetes Care

25(11)

1999-2003

Jianping Liu. et al.

2002

Misuse of Randomization : A Review of Chineses Randomized Trials of Herbal Medicines for Chronic Hepatitis B

The American Journal  of Chineses Medicines

30(1)

173-176

Maarten L.A.T.M.Hertog*

2002

The impact of biological variation on postharvest population dynamics

Postharvest Biology and Technology

26

253-263

Jeffrey A.Gliner. et al.

2002

Problems With Null Hypothesis Significance Testing (NHST) : What Do the Textbooks Say?

The  Journal  of Experimental Education

71(1)

83-92

James P.Brody*t. et al.

2002

Significance and Statistical errors in the analysis of DNA microarray data

PNAS

90(20)

12975-12978

Hideo Kusuoka. et al.

2002

Advice on  Statistical Analysis for Circulation Research

Circ Res

91

662-671

Lynda Anne Szczech. et al.

2002

Key Concepts in Biostatistics : Using Statistics to Answer the Question “Is There a Difference?”

Seminars in Dialysis

15(5)

347-351

John Ludbrook

2002

Statistical Techniques for Comparing Measurers and methods of measurement : a critical review

Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology

29

527-536

Elise Whitley. et al.

2002

Statistics review 3 : Hypothesis Testing and P values

Critical Care

6(3)

222-225

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gregory A.Miller. et al.

2001

Misunderstanding Analysis of Covariance

Journal of Abnormal Psychology

110(1)

40-48

Steven C.Bagleya. et al.

2001

Logistic regression in the medical literature : Standards for use and reporting,with particular attention to one medical domain 

Journal of Clinical Epidemiology

54

979-985

Alan S.Rigby

2001

Statistical methods in epidemiology.V. An overview of the X2 test for 2 × 2 contingency table analysis.

Disability and Rehabilitation

23

693-697

 

 

 

 

 

 

James B.Jones. et al.

2000

Research Fundamentals : Statistical Considerations in Research Design : A Simple Person's Apptoach

Academic Emergency Medicine

7

194-199

Lloyd J.Edwards,phD

2000

Modern Statistical Techniques for the Analysis of Longitudinal Data in Biomedical Research

Pediatric Pulmonology

30

330-344

 

N.V.Nagaraja. et al.

1999

Choosing the calibration model in assay validation1

Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis

20

433-438

Alan M W Porter MD PhD

1999

Misuse of correlation and regression in three medical journals

J R Soc Med

92

123-128

Steven N.Goodman MD PhD

1999

Toward Evidence-Based Medical Statistics.1: The P Value Fallacy

Annals of Internal Medicine

130

995-1004

Dale N.Glaser

1999

The Controversy of Significance Testing : Misconceptions and Alternatives

American Journal of Critical Care 

5

291-296

 

 

 

 

 

 

Phillip Ratcliffe

1998

Using the‘new’statistics in nursing research

Journal of Advanced Nursing

27

132-139

 

 

 

 

 

 

Alejandro R.Jadad. et al.

1996

Assessing the Quality of Reports of Randomized Clinical Trials : Is Blinding Neceddary?

Controlled Clinical Trials

17

1-12

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gordon Guyatt. et al.

1995

Basic Statistics for Clinicians : 2. Interpreting Study Results : Confidence Intervals

CAN MED ASSOC J

152(2)

169-173

Gordon Guyatt. et al.

1995

Basic Statistics for Clinicians :4. Correlation and Regression

CAN MED ASSOC J

152(4)

497-504

 

Todd C.Wehner. et al.

1994

Presentation of Analysis of Variance Results and Graphical Data

HORT SCIENCE

29(6)

1

Michael E.Compton

1994

Statistical methods suitable for the analysis of plant tissue culture data

Plant Cell,Tissue and Organ Culture

37

217-242

 

J.Martin Bland . et al.

1986

Statistical Methods for Assessing Agreement Between two Methods of Clinical Measurement

Lacet

?

1-9