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非洲的大麻生產潛力巨大
 

中興大學 生物系統工程研究室 陳加忠

 
 

 20201210

非洲國家越來越多地接受大麻生產。自2017年以來,七個非洲國家(即賴索托,南非,史瓦帝尼,盧安達,辛巴威,烏干達和馬拉威)在不同程度上使大麻合法化。這些政府中的主要動機是挖掘此植物的經濟發展潛力。例如,在2019年,New Frontier Data分析估計,辛巴威的合法大麻市場將在五年內僱用75,000名員工,並產生超過190億美元的稅收收入。

目前,在該非洲大陸上,THC的使用量很高,六個國家的大麻市場每個都超過了10億美元,而現在立法者正加緊利用大麻的稅收潛力。儘管合法市場的健康狀況因國家而異,但總體而言,它們從美國和加拿大公司那裡吸引了大量外國投資。除了與大麻素消費相關的經濟活動外,不斷增長的大麻產業(高THC大麻和CBD大麻)都在推動工業產品創新。

工業大麻的應用是大麻產量增加的自然副產品,因為存有的其他方式可以使原來大量浪費的材料(即莖和種子)正促使人們將其貨幣化。因此非洲大陸上消費者對CBD或高THC大麻的需求不斷增長,可同時推動工業大麻產品的市場採用。

綠色工業革命

非洲是世界上一些發展最快的經濟體的所在地。在整個非洲大陸,國家正在迅速工業化和發展,非洲將在未來30年內經歷所有非洲大陸最大的人口增長(例如到2050年,預計將增加19億人口[1])。

儘管伴隨著經濟刺激計劃,非洲各國政府對快速工業化表示歡迎,但同時也引起了環保主義者的關注。他們指出如果當今的發展中國家以與西方和亞洲相同的方式進行工業化,那將是全球碳排放量災難性的範圍內。因此,在建築,紡織生產和塑料製造等行業中,開發傳統材料的碳中和替代品的興趣十分濃厚。正是那些大麻產品在希望不破壞經濟的前提下尋求利基來使經濟脫碳(或者更好地避免碳化)。

大麻基礎建築材料對於經歷快速人口增長的非洲國家特別有吸引力可適應容納與僱用不斷增長的人口所需要的建築熱潮都。非洲大陸的建設項目在2019年超過了5,000億美元[2],因此,隨著各國經濟的持續發展,這些項目有望增長。

區域熱點發展

南部非洲正在成為大麻生產的熱點。自賴索托啟動大麻改革以來,該地區的國家是第一個注意到並考慮自己可能性的改革的國家。毫不奇怪,此趨勢在地理散佈上通常對大麻,經濟,貿易和/或氣候具有相似文化態度的地區。在美國,最早將休閒大麻合法化的州集中在西方(例如科羅拉多州,華盛頓州,俄勒岡州和加利福尼亞州),然後再合法化到該國其他地區。新的前沿數據預計非洲也將保持同樣的勢頭。

儘管採取了合法化措施,但非洲大麻生產商在發展有效市場方面面臨許多障礙。缺乏基礎設施,過時的耕作技術和貪汙腐敗都是複雜因素。但是,由於大麻素產品的巨大市場潛力以及由大麻素生產的副產品生產的環保工業產品,大麻可以為非洲國家的經濟和工業發展做出重大貢獻。

Africa’s Promising Untapped Potential for Hemp Production

 December 10, 2020

Posted by New Frontier Data

Cannabis Insights,Hemp Business Journal

 Comments are off for this post

 

By Trevor Yahn-Grode, Data Analyst, New Frontier Data

African nations are increasingly embracing cannabis production. To varying degrees since 2017, seven African countries (i.e., Lesotho, South Africa, Eswatini, Rwanda, Zimbabwe, Uganda, and Malawi) have legalized cannabis. The primary motivation among each of those governments is to tap the plant’s potential for economic development. As example, in 2019, New Frontier Data analysis estimated that within five years, a legal cannabis market in Zimbabwe could employ 75,000 people and generate more than $19 billion USD in tax revenue.

For now, high-THC cannabis usage is quite prevalent on the continent – six countries each contain domestic cannabis markets exceeding $1 billion USD apiece – and now lawmakers are gearing up to cash in on cannabis’ tax revenue potential.

 

While the health of legal markets varies significantly by country, overall they have drawn large amounts of foreign investment from United States and Canadian companies. In addition to the economic activity related to cannabinoid consumption, a growing cannabis industry– both high-THC cannabis and CBD hemp – is helping to drive innovation in industrial products. Industrial cannabis applications are natural byproducts of increased cannabis production since the existence of large amounts of otherwise wasted materials (i.e., stalks and seeds) creates an incentive to monetize them. Thus, increasing consumer demand for CBD or high-THC cannabis on the continent can simultaneously drive market adoption of industrial hemp products.

A Green Industrial Revolution

Africa is home to some of the world’s fastest-growing economies. Throughout the continent, countries are quickly industrializing and growing, with Africa set to experience the largest population increase of any continent over the next 30 years (e.g., an additional 1.9 billion people are projected by 2050[1]).

While the rapid industrialization is being welcomed by African governments for the attendant economic stimulus, it also draws concerns from environmental activists who point out that should today’s developing countries undergo industrialization in the same manner that such unfolded in the West and Asia, it will prove catastrophic in the scope of global carbon emissions. Therefore, significant interests reside in the development of carbon-neutral replacements for traditional materials in industries such as construction, textile production, and plastics manufacturing. It is in those hemp products that hopes seek niches to decarbonize economies (or better yet avoid carbonizing altogether) without destroying them.

Hemp-based construction materials are especially attractive both for African countries experiencing rapid population growth, and to accommodate the building boom required to house, employ, and entertain expanding populations. Construction projects on the continent exceeded $500 billion in 2019[2] and are accordingly expected to grow as countries continue to develop economically.

Regional Hotspots Developing

Southern Africa is becoming a hotspot of cannabis production. Since Lesotho initiated cannabis reform, countries in its region were the first to take notice and to consider their own possibilities for reforms. Unsurprisingly, trends spread geographically among regions typically sharing similar cultural attitudes toward cannabis, economy, trade, and/or climate. In the U.S., the first states to legalize recreational cannabis were concentrated in the West (e.g., Colorado, Washington, Oregon, and California) before legalization spread to other areas of the country. New Frontier Data expects the same dynamic in Africa.

 Despite passage of legalization measures, African cannabis producers face many obstacles to developing functioning markets. Lack of infrastructure, outdated farming techniques, and corruption are all complicating factors. However, due to the large market potential of cannabinoid products, and the environmentally friendly industrial products to be produced from the byproducts of cannabinoid production, hemp can significantly contribute to both the economic and industrial development of African countries.